RECORDS OF COLLECTINGTRIP TO GUYANA
12 JAN. 1992 T/M 7 FEBR.1992
BY: FRANS EN MARJAN VERMEULEN.
13 JANUARY ; Departure New York over Trinidad to Georgetown.
13 JANUARY ; Arrival Georgetown, Guyana.
14 JANUARY ; Arrange several licenses to enter Interior, flights to the remote areas in the south etc. etc.
15 JANUARY ; Arrange export license for fish, confirmation flight back, update driver license Suresh Paryag (my local guide) and getting visa’s for entering Brazil if necessary.
FIELD # GY 92 01 (06.40'50" N, 58.10'00" W) Guyana: East Demarara dist. Georgetown-city(Queenstown). Left side from the road, coming from city-center Georgetown, proxy. one km. before the floating pontoon-bridge over the Demarara River. Strong polluted ditch, no vegetation, temperature approx. 30 degrees Celsius._ Time; 16.30 hour(loc. time).
NOTE : ZMA 121.003. - ZMA 121.002. ZMA 121.004 and ZMA 121.005 FIELD # GY 92 02 (06.40'50" N, 58.10'00" W) Same place like GY 92 01 but the other side of the road in a ditch with heavy vegetation attributing the Demarara River.
NOTE: ZMA 121.007 - ZMA 121.008_ All these fish were "live bearing" tooth carps. No Rivulus.
16 JANUARY ; Back to Georgetown to collect visa Brazil, post postcards, chance US-dollars on the black market etc. etc. At 16.00 hours that afternoon try to reach the swamps in the back of the enormous farm of the fam. Paryag at Canal no 1, West Coast Demarara, 13 Good Hope. Back at 19.00 hours. No Rivulus collected. Apistogramma, Pyrrhulina, Hephessiobricon axelrodi and other tetra's.
17 JANUARY ;
FIELD # GY 92 03 ( 06.40'50" N, 58.10'43" W) Guyana, West Demarara Distr. Canal Nr 1,"B-Line". time : 10.00 hour. At the end of Canal Nr.1, were the Conservancy starts in grassy land we collect Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus. Water value’s pH 5.5 GH < 0.5 KH <0.5 NO3 <0.5 NO2 0 ppm. Temperature : 28 C. Color : dark brown/clear.
18 JANUARY ;
Start trip to "Marshall Falls" in Mazaruni River Much troubles because hired boat didn't come on time. Engine-failure is reason. Late afternoon left Parika and reach Marshall Falls in the dark. Tru very wild water bring boat above the falls, put up the tent and go to bed.
19 JANUARY ;
FIELD # GY 92 04 (06.10'40" N, 58.40'37" W) Guyana, Mazaruni-Potaro Distr. Marshall Falls, Mazaruni-Riv. Time ; 09.00 hour. In rest waters on the massive rocks high above the river level (low water at this season) we collect a great number of Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus. Took all the samples alive. No water values taken.
FIELD # GY 92 05 (06.10'40" N, 58.40'37" W) Guyana, Mazaruni-Potaro Distr. Marshall Falls, Mazaruni-Riv. Time : 12.15 hour. Shallow bush pool along a not finished road which was meant for the "Potaro Project" (?). Local name "Project Road". We collect about 30 very young Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus._ Took all the sample alive. No water value’s taken. Black water without vegetation, thick layer of leaves. Also large number of little tadpoles. No other fish present. Were the road ends starts a hilly bush-trail. In the hard soil are little puddles containing less than one liter of water. Here we also find the same Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus.
FIELD # GY 92 06 (06.10'40" N, 58.40'37" W) Guyana, Mazaruni-Potaro Distr. Marshall Falls, Mazaruni-Riv. Time ; 13.30 our. Wet bush-ground in higher parts around "Marshall Creek" (local name) a creek attributing the Mazaruni River. Here also we collect Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus sin top with Rivulus agilae. By pushing our feet’s into the soil, water comes up and the fishes appear from under the wet leaves. We have to collect them with our hands because the net is to big. At 15.30 hour we leave Marshall Falls downstream to Groete River, Left Bank Essequibo-River, 15 mile downstream of Bartica.(out: Gazetteer of Guyana.) Approx. after 4 miles up the creek we camp on a place were a old Indian guy guards the Lumber camp of our captain Dio. This Indian drinks that night our whole stock of rum.
20 JANUARY ;
FIELD # GY 92 07 (06.30'50" N, 58.40'05" W) Guyana, Essequibo Islands Distr., Groete River. Time ; 09.00 hour. From the camp we leave over a bush-trail with a tractor into the bush. After about 4 miles we start fishing in a shallow creek. We collect a number of Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus with a remarkable bluish tail center. Walking back to the camp we find the same species in the water puddles on the road, made by the tractor-tires. No other fish found. Water black and clear. All samples taken alive.
FIELD # GY 92 08 (06.30'37" N, 58.30'45" W) Guyana, Essequibo Islands Distr., Saxakalli-beach, sandy shore 3 miles above Groete River, left bank Essequibo River. Time ; 13.30 hour. Rising water because of tide. Here we have a nice swim and use the big net. (6x1 meters) Collected a puffer fish and some salmon like fish and some catfishes. Preserved the puffer fish only. After Saxakalli Beach we visit "Fort Zeelandia" a former Dutch fort on Fort Island in the Essequibo Delta. Nothing collected.
21 JANUARY ;
Pontoon bridge across the Demarara River Broke again. This time two segments broke away with a minibus full of passengers on it. The flight we booked to Lethem - Rupununi Distr. was full occupied by people from an malaria-team and we could not fly in spite of the 250 US bribe we paid the captain already. Chanced our plan and booked a flight to Kamarang - Upper Mazaruni District._ Flight planned for 23 January. Rest of the day preserved the material and take care of the life material.
22 JANUARY ;
Arrange several things in town, as making new arrangement for the flight to Lethem and doing shopping’s for the trip to Kamarang.
23 JANUARY ;
At 08.00 hour left to Georgetown. At the very crowdie riverbank were we embarked little fisher-boats to get over the river, (bridge was broken) somebody stole my wallet with a part of the money we had with us. (approx. 300 US$)_ At 10.45 hour departure by "Piper" to Kamarang. Arrival Kamarang 12.20 hour.
24 JANUARY ;
FIELD # GY 92 09 (05.50'43" N, 60.30'55" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, "Sand Landing" rapids downstream Mazaruni River. About 4 to 5 miles below Membaru River. This is the exact Type Locality of Mazarunia mazaruni, Kullander 1991. (pers.com. P.de Rham) Time 11.00 hour. On sandy bottom between big rocks we collect with the big net about 20 specimen of Mazarunia mazaruni. Also we collect 3 very small catfishes by dragging also some sand ashore wherein they live.( new species, pers.comm. Isbrücker)._ Water clear, light brown. Temperature 26 degrees Celsius. pH 5.7 - DH < 1 and KH < 1.
FIELD # GY 92 10 (05.50'35" N, 60.30'35" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, Membaru River, little creek running into this Membaru river 2,5 miles from where the Membaru River meets the Mazaruni. Right Bank.(going upstream at the left hand.) Time 14.30 hour. Here we collect very small samples of a Rivulus species (description in preparation by author) about 5 specimen. In first look the resemble the Rivulus gransabanae, Thomerson et.al.. Water clear and cool. Primary forest, almost dark because of thick leaf-roof. No other fish found. Samples taken alive.
FIELD # GY 92 11 (05.50'35" N, 60.30'35" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, Membaru River, little creek running into the Membaru river about 4 miles up from where the Membaru meets the Mazaruni. Right Bank. (Going upstream at the left.) Time 15.40 hour. Here we collect the same Rivulus-species together with a little Crenuchus-like fish (New for science) and a striped Characid fish. Something higher in the creek our Indian captain, Malcolm George, brought us to a swamp were to many snakes made that fishing was to dangerous. Looked good for annual fishes. High grassy wetland, no trees. Time 17.00 hour. Return to Kamarang-compound
25 JANUARY ;
FIELD # GY 92 12 (05.50'20" N, 60.30'58" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, Kamarang River, little creek running into Kamarang River, Right Bank just before the place were Paul James has his General Store. (first creek up the Kamarang River from where this river tribute the Mazaruni River.) Time 13.30 hour. After we visit creeks attributing the Kamarang River, that early morning, we had to break this off because of the heavy rains and the massive current in the little creeks and went back to Kamarang Compound. In the surrounding of Kamarang Compound we collect little numbers of a Rivulus with elongated fins in males at the fast running part of a little creek just before it tribute the main river.(Kamarang) In the higher "swampy" part we collect Rivulus c.f. immaculatus.(Thomerson et al.1991) The long finned species was not present at this part of the creek. Our Captain Malcolm George told us, the same creek passed the Kamarang Village were people usually do the laundry.
FIELD # GY 92 13 (05.50'20" n, 60.30'58" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, Kamarang River, Creek at place were Paul James has his General Store, Kamarang Compound. Time 14.45 hour. The place was easy to find and we were able to collect many more specimen of the Rivulus c.f. immaculatus which was never found before in a remote area from the type locality in Venezuela. Sin top we only collect a catfish-like specimen. Interesting was the abundance of the little long finned species. This in spite of long and intensive collecting between the high grasses and voluminous vegetation. Biotope: Slow current, clear water-creek with very swampy edges, partly covered with low trees or bushes, partly open and sunny. Temp. 26 degrees Celsius. No water-values taken.
Early in the morning left Kamarang in little boat with outboard engine up the Mazaruni River to visit creeks upstream._
FIELD # GY 92 14 (05.50'05" N, 60.30'38" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, Eni-River(creek), 3 miles up in the Left Bank of Mazaruni-River coming from Kamarang Compound. Time 10.00 hour.(temporary fieldnr. MAZ.1) Here we collect a number (approx.40) samples of the Rivulus with elongated fins. (Color something different) Also one large male of Rivulus c.f. immaculatus.
FIELD # GY 92 15 (05.50'08" N, 60.30.30" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, little creek 5 miles up in the Right Bank of Mazaruni-River coming from Kamarang Compound. Time : 10.30 hour.(temporary fieldnr.MAZ.2) Here also we collect the long finned Rivulus together with some brown Characid-like fishes.
FIELD # GY 92 16 (05.50'05" N, 60.30'32" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, little creek 6 miles up in the Left Bank of Mazaruni-River coming from Kamarang Compound._ Time : 12.15 hour.(temporary field nr. MAZ. 3) Here again we collect a large number little long finned Rivulus and again one large sample of Rivulus c.f. immaculatus. Return to Kamarang.
FIELD # GY 92 17 (05.50'05" n, 60.30'34" W) Time : 12.45 hour.(temporary fieldnr. MAZ. 5) Little creek in the surrounding of Kamarang, Mazaruni River Left Bank. Here we could not collect Rivulus but some Characids and little Crenuchus-like fishes were present. (preserved)
FIELD # GY 92 18 (05.50'20" N, 60.30'58" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, Kamarang-River Right Bank, just under Kamarang Compound. Time : 14.00 hour. In the Kamarang main- stream we use the big net between the heavy pieces of lumber who lay around along the whole river-edge. We were able to collect 3 cichlids (Adult M. mazaruni ?) and different Characids and Tetra's. We could not keep the Cichlids alive and preserved them. I am almost sure it were adults of Mazarunia mazaruni (Kullander 1991). The specimen of "Sand Landing"
(FIELD # GY 92 09) in the mean time raised in my tanks show the same pattern and color. After this we did some shopping and renewed the water in the bags and repacked the life fish for our trip to Imbamadai the next morning.
Departure Kamarang at 10.55 hour by little boat to Imbamadai. After hours of maneuvering between the tail hips of the gold-drudges and many new "break-pens" of the outboard engine we stop to collect again at the left bank of the mazaruni River.
FIELD # GY 92 19 (05.40'25" N, 60.30'15" W) We collect in a little creek about 5 long finned Rivulus like the Kamarang samples and one Tetra and a large number of tadpoles. Also some little brown Crenuchus-like fish again. In a sharp corner of the river a sandbank appears. We stop here and use the large net.
FIELD # GY 92 20 (approx. 05.40'20" N, 60.20'50" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, sand-bank on Right Bank Mazaruni River a few miles up from the place Kako River tributes the Mazaruni. Time : 14.30 hour. On this sandbank we collect several Characids and the Nannostomus-like fish we looked before at "Sand Landing". The species P. de Rahm asked me to look for. I am sure this is the first member of a new and un described family. On our way to Imbamadai we collect two times in little creeks at the left bank and catch a small number of long finned Rivulus that die the next day. (None of them were preserved.)
After spend the night in a "Guesthouse" in Imbamadai get up very early to photograph the rising sun above the forest. Before we start this trip we arranged a flight for 2 o'clock to bring us back to Georgetown that day, so we want to use the time to visit several creeks in the surrounding of Imbamadai.
FIELD # GY 92 21 (05.50'08" N, 60.20'50" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, little creek just above Imbamadai running in the Left Bank of Mazaruni-River. Time : 08.10 hour. Again we collect in little creeks the long finned Rivulus and because of the heavy rains that night the current is heavy to. (temporary fieldnr. IMB.1) No other fish present. Biotope : Very dark primary forest, deep carved out quick running rivulet with cool water. (Temp. 20 to 22 C.). After our captain Malcolm George it rains every night in this area.
FIELD # GY 92 22 (05.40'00" N, 60.20'50" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, little creek 4 miles up from Imbamadai on the Left Bank of the Mazaruni River. Time : 10.10 hour. In this creek we collect long finned Rivulus spec. again. After study the fish under aquarium-conditions it turned out to be two totally different species. The first is the species we collect before at Kamarang and during the trip to Imbamadai and the second is identical with Rivulus gransabanae (Thomerson et al. 1992). Preserved after observation in aquarium. Breeding was not successful (only one male we could raise).
FIELD # GY 92 23 (05.30'55" N, 60.20'50" W) Guyana, Upper Mazaruni District, little creek 7 miles up from Imbamadai on the Left Bank of the Mazaruni River. Time 10.45 hour. In this last creek we collect long finned Rivulus again._ As later turned out Rivulus c.f. gransabanae was only present at fieldnr. GY 92 22. Time : 11.10 hour. Back to Imbamadai to wait for the little Cessna that should fly us to Georgetown. Time : 14.45 hour. No plane came in till that time. An plane hired by someone else came in. We demand a place in that aircraft because the pilot told us no plane will come in the next days. Have to fight for it and hold up the plane for more than 45 minutes. Finally a part of the luggage is unloaded and we went with it. Time : 16.30 hour. Back at the coast.
In the morning renewed the water for the fishes. Preserved a number of them. To the Capital to buy food, fuel and ice.
FIELD # GY 92 24 (06.30'10" N, 58.10'30" W) Guyana, East Demarara District, behind Timehri Airport, Duck-road. Wet grass/bush-land with limited water. Time : 16.00 hour. We have being here before (FIELD GY 91 05). We collect again a large number of Riv. agilae. No other fish were present this time. (In 1991 we collect Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus as well.)
FIELD # GY 92 25 (06.00.10" N, 58.10'40" W) Guyana, East Demarara District, Linden (former Mackenzie), left side of the road before entering the town. Wet grassland. Time : 17.30 hour. Just before entering the Linden-city we collect in the swampy part at the left from the road. In little puddles in the grass we catch a small number of Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus. If there is really a difference between R. urophthalmus and R. stagnatus this must be the R. stagnatus (Eigenmann 1909). (to prove this I have to compare the R. stagnatus holotype with my material, which I will do in the near future.) Spend the night at the Malaria-outpost of Wismar.
Time : 08.30 hour. Up to Rockstone and from there, just like we did in 1991, cross the Essequibo to "Gluck Island". No boat with engine was available so we had to paddle for more than 60 minutes. Time 11.00 hour arrival Gluck Island. Without any result we look on different sand-banks for P. staeki with the big net. P. staeki was reported from here by Prof. J. Thomerson. After 50 minutes we stop looking on the sandbanks and went to the inside swamp on the island.(look to GY 91 14)
FIELD # GY 92 25 (06.00'00" N, 58.30'28" W) Time : approx. 12.00 hour. On the inner lower part of the island a large pool remain if the water of the river is low. If the water level is high this pool and the island as well are submerged by the river. The number of different species is enormous here and the vegetation is overwhelming. (Regina's and Cabomba caroliniana are the most common plants). Around the swamp the area is secondary forest with palm-trees with sharp dorns at the leaves and stem. We collect Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus. Again no Rivulus frenatus seen. (Terra typica) Paddled back to Rockstone. From Rockstone at both sides of the road to Linden we collect in a swampy area, not deep and with grassy vegetation.
FIELD GY 92 26 (05.50'58" N, 58.30'00" W) Time : 14.15 hour. Here we collect Rivulus agilae en Riv. c.f. urophthalmus. Took all samples alive. Water temperature approx. 28 C. Clear and stagnant. No water values taken._ Time 14.45 hour. With the car we take the junction to Mabura-Hill. On 62 kilometer from the point this road starts we stop on the place we collect Rivulus frenatus before.(GY 91 08)
FIELD # GY 92 27 (05.30'35" N, 58.30'50" W) Guyana, Mazaruni-Potaro Distrikt, "40 miles creek" 62 km. south from the junction on the road Wismar/Rockstone. Slow-running creek, black water, tribute to Essequibo River. Time : 15.45 hour. We collect approx. 70 juvenile R. frenatus. Time : 17.40 hour. Return to Canal no 1, the home basis on the West Bank Demarara. To bed at 01.00 hours in the night.
At 05.00 hours up already to go to Timehri Airport. From there we fly by "Air- van" a prehistoric flying coffin to Lethem in the Rupununi District._ Departure 08.15. - Arrival Lethem 09.55. In the north-west direction about 5 miles from Lethem we stayed on Manari-Ranch, with Indrani Moses and her husband Peter. (Peter is killed by a motorcycle accident 1993) In the afternoon we went with a jeep to the foot of Kanaku-mountains were we were not successful collecting Rivulus.
Spend the night in the open. Did sleep very well. No mosquitoes and a warm wind during almost the whole night. That morning we should leave around 08.00 hours but the guy with the jeep didn’t turned up. By foot we visited that morning the rest pools in the surrounding landscape. All were part of the dried up Manari River. In the extreme heat (40 degrees C.) no place with shadow, we collect a number of Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus.
FIELD # GY 92 28 (03.20'50" N, 59.50'40" W) Guyana, Rupununi District, Takatu Drainage, Manari-River rest pools around Manari Ranch. Time 10.50 hour. Here we collect Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus with a nice golden color.
Early in the morning up to "Manari Guesthouse"_ This hotel from old glorious times is managed by "Uncle Louis" and the rest pool we found behind his hotel (also Manari River) we gave the name "Louis Pool".
FIELD # GY 92 29 (03.20'50" N, 59.50'30" W) Guyana, Rupununi District, Takatu-River drainage, "Louis Pool" a rest pool from the dried up Manari-River. Time : 09.25 hour. Here we collect in the muddy rest water many Riv. c.f. urophthalmus of the same type we collect the day before.
FIELD # GY 92 30 (same area, no exact values available) Time : 11.00 hour._ Local name : Mangera Tree (Big Mango-tree) dried up puddle with deep soft layer of mud and a few wet places. Some little eel-like lungfishes, several Acanthodoras species, no Rivulus or other annual fishes present. All preserved, a few eels taken alive.
FIELD # GY 92 31 (03.30'05" N, 59.50'00" W) Guyana, Rupununi Distrikt, Takatu river. Time : 11.55 hour. In a almost empty Takatu-River we collect several species_ So also a stingray about 45 cm wide with bleu poisoned dorn on tail. Not preserved but end up in the cooking-pot. No Rivulus present. We walk true the river and made a short visit to Brazil.
FIELD # GY 92 32 (No exact data available, 2 hours drive from Takatu in east direction) Guyana, Rupununi District, Pirara River, rest pools with muddy water. Time : 15.35 hour. Here we collect a large number big fish such as : Cichlids, Acanthodoridae, Crenichicla, Farlowella, Ancistrus all together in a little rest of muddy water. No formalin enough to preserve them properly. After the long ride back to Manari Ranch the samples were in a bad condition so preserving them was not possible anymore. Next morning went to Lethem to buy a few bottles of "Alcool" a type of spirit. All the preservations after this time were made with this stuff.
Time 07.00 get ready to drive in south direction to reach the south part of the Kanuku Mountains and the Rupununi Drainage. This trip was a major goal in this expedition because of the opportunity to visit two total different river systems which springs in one savannah area. (Rupununi savannah) The first one is the Takatu-river which tributes the Rio Branco that flows into the Amazon-system and the second is the Rupununi-river that’s tribute the Essequibo to the North. I did expect to register a large difference in the populations and diversity of species and was, in connection to the Rivulus I expect to collect, not sure what to find. It became a rough drive over "cattle-tracks" along Amerindian villages and true dead landscape in 43 degrees Celsius. Open jeep partly without bottom. Over 7 people went with us.
FIELD # GY 92 33 (03.00'05" N, 59.30'20" W) Guyana, Rupununi-Distrikt, Rupununi River south of the Kanuku-Mountains. Time : 12.20 hour. River was almost dried up. No water in the whole area and the little water between the rocks of the river bottom did contain only a few catfishes. (Preserved the collection)
FIELD # GY 92 34 (03.00'05 N, 59.30'15" W) Guyana, Rupununi District, Katiwau-River(local name also called "Sand Creek") little River attributing the Rupununi-River, south of Kanuku-Mountains. Time : 13.00 hour._ Here we collect some material which we preserve again in the "alcool" but because of the transportation and heat this collection became in a poor state. No Rivulus found.
FIELD # GY 92 35 (03.00'.00" N, 59.30'10" W) Not far from "Sand Creek" we visit a separate puddle with muddy water and collect a number of cichlids with bright bleu color. Also some Crenichicla and catfishes. Because of the lack of preserving material we only preserve the Cichlids. No Rivulus found._ Time 14.45 hour. Back to Manari Ranch after we figured out no water was left in the area. (pers.comm of local Amerindians)._ Disappointment al over.
FIELD # GY 92 36 (03.00'00" N, 59.40'25" W) Guyana, Rupununi District, Wood ant-nest Creek (Sauriwau River) Takatu Drainage. Time 17.50 hour._ In this shallow rest pool we collect the first Rivulus that day. It's Rivulus c.f. urophthalmus identical with the ones we collect the days before around Manari. Back on Manari Ranch in the night.
Time 10.20 hour. Departure by Air-van from Lethem to Georgetown. Time 12.00 hour. Arrival Georgetown.
To Georgetown to arrange license for export the fish. Big problems.
Went up at 04.00 hour to help selling a wagon of pine-apples on the Stabroek Market. After that we went again to the Ministry of Fisheries to get the export license and to find the thief who stole my wallet. (We didn't find him.)_ In the afternoon renewed the water of the fishes and packed them for the flight back.
07 FEBRUARY; Back flight home The Netherlands.